The Internet serves as the Web’sWeb’s backbone, providing the technological infrastructure that allows it to function. At its most fundamental, the Internet is a vast network of computers that communicate with one another.


The history of the Internet is a little murky. It originated in the 1960s as a research project supported by the United States Army, then expanded into a public infrastructure in the 1980s with the help of several public colleges and commercial corporations. The different technologies that enable the Internet have developed over time. Still, the method it works hasn’t changed much: the Internet is a mechanism to link computers and assure that they stay connected no matter what happens.


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Deeper dive

A straightforward network

When two computers need to interact, they must be linked either physically (through an Ethernet connection) or wirelessly (as with WiFi or Bluetooth technologies). Any of those connections may be maintained by any current computer.

Note: For the remainder of this essay, we will only discuss physical connections. However, wireless networks function similarly.

A network like this isn’t restricted to just two PCs.You are free to connect to as many computers as you like. However, things quickly deteriorate. To connect ten PCs, you’ll need 45 cables, each with nine connections!


To overcome this problem, each computer in a network is connected to a small computer called a router. This router has only one job: it guarantees that a message sent from one computer reaches the proper target computer, much like a signaler at a train station. Computer A must first send a message to the router before sending it to computer B, who then transmits the message to computer B while making sure that it does not reach computer C

With the addition of a router, our ten-computer network requires just ten cables: one for each machine and a router with ten connections.


A network is made up of several networks.

So far, everything is going well. But what about linking hundreds of thousands, if not billions, of computers? Of course, a single router can’t scale that far, But, as previously said, a router is a computer just like any other. So what’s stopping us from linking two routers together? Nothing, so let’s get started.




By connecting computers to routers, then routers to routers, we can scale infinitely.

Such a network is pretty near to what we call the Internet, yet something is lacking. That network was established for our objectives. Other networks exist your friends, your neighbors. Everyone may have their computer network. But setting up wires between your residence and the rest of the world isn’t an option, so how do you deal with this? There are existing wires connected to your property, such as electric power and telephone. Because the telephone system already connects your home to anybody globally, it is the ideal wire we require. To link our network to the telephone system, we need a modem, a specific piece of equipment. This modem converts information from our network into data that the telephone infrastructure can handle and vice versa.



As a result, we are linked to the telephone infrastructure. The next step is to transmit messages from our network to the network we wish to communicate with. To do this, we will link our network to an Internet Service Provider (ISP). An ISP is a corporation that runs a network of unique routers connected and can also access the routers of other ISPs. As a result, the communication from our network is routed to the destination network via the network of ISP network. The Internet is made up of this entire network architecture.

Finding computers

You must first choose which machine you want to whom a message should be sent. As a result, each device connected to a network has a unique address that can be identified. Which is known as a network address.” IP address” (where IP stands for Internet Protocol). It’s an address made up of four integers separated by dots, such as

That’s wonderful for machines, but it’s difficult for us humans to remember that kind of address. An IP address can be aliased with a human-readable name known as a domain name to make things easier. For example, is the domain name used on top of the IP address (in writing, IP addresses might change). As a result, utilizing a domain name is the most convenient way to connect to a computer via the Internet.


The Webb and the Internet

You may have observed that when we employ, may have observed that we usually utilize the domain name when we use a website. Does this imply that the Internet and the World Wide Web are the same things? That is not the case. As previously stated, the Internet is a technical infrastructure that allows billions of computers to be linked together. Some (referred to as Web servers) can deliver messages understandable by web browsers among those systems. The Internet is infrastructure, but WebWeb is a service created on top of it. It is worth mentioning that various other services, such as email and IRC, are built on top of the Internet.


Extranets and Intranets

Intranets are private networks that are only available to employees. To members of a particular organization. They are frequently used to provide a secure channel to access shared information, collaborate, and communicate. An intranet, for example, may host web pages for sharing department or team information, shared drives for managing essential documents and data, portals for conducting business administration activities, and collaboration tools like wikis, discussion boards, and messaging systems.


Extranets are similar to Intranets in that they open all or a portion of a private network for sharing and cooperation with other companies. They are often used to transmit information to clients and stakeholders who work safely and securely with a business. Their functions are frequently identical to those of an intranet: information and file sharing, collaboration tools, discussion boards, and so forth.

Intranets and extranets employ the same infrastructure as the Internet and the same protocols. As a result, authorized members can access them from various physical places.