Capsicum is also called Sweet Pepper, Bell Pepper or Shimla Mirch. This capsicum is one of the renowned vegetables grown throughout India. It is a rich source of minerals like Calcium (13.4 mg), Magnesium (14.9 mg), Phosphorus (28.3 mg) Potassium, (263.7 mg) and Vitamin A (8493 IU), Vitamin C (283 mg).
Capsicum is a cool-season crop, but you can grow it round the year using protected structures where temperature and relative humidity (RH) can be manipulated. This crop requires day temperature of 25℃ to 300℃ and night temperature of 18℃ to 200℃ with a relative humidity of 50-60%. If the temperature exceeds 350℃ or falls below 120℃, this capsicum will be affected.
Capsicum farming needs various equipment, which plays a significant role in the processing of agriculture. Tractors, implements, and harvesters are the core of farming. Therefore, we suggest the Massey Ferguson tractor that enhances efficiency in the field. Apart from this, you can use the Massey Ferguson Tractor.
Process of the Capsicum Cultivation in India
Here below, you can get information for capsicum cultivation that can be helpful in farming.
Capsicum Cultivation – Suitable Soil
Farmers can grow capsicum on alluvial soil, peat soil. However, it yields good if they grow in soil with texture sandy soil, clay soil, and highly porous pH 6.0 to 7.0.
It gives the best result when farmers grow it under sandy loam soil, having a good drainage system and high fertility.
Capsicum Cultivation – Land Preparation
When farmers cultivate the capsicum, then they should remove it from the bed surface in the fields. And farmers should make the soil well friable, 5-6 ploughing and then planking. At land preparation, farmers mix the FYM (farmyard manure) or compost to the soil. Then, at the time of transplanting, farmers should irrigate beds and keep them wet.
Capsicum Cultivation – Climate Information
The best climatic conditions required for capsicum are high humidity, and the required temperature should be between 21℃ to 30℃ with average rainfall between 60 cm up to 120 cm.
Capsicum is a cool-season crop, and a day temperature below 30℃ is favourable for growth and yield. Low night temperatures are favourable for flowering and fruiting.
Capsicum Cultivation – Sowing Methods
- Low tunnel technology:
Farmers use this technique for the early production of capsicum in early summer. It helps protect the crop from the cold season, i.e. from December to the middle of February.
Farmers sow the beds of 2.5 m width in December. For sowing the seed, they should keep the space row to row is 130 cm.
Supporting rods of length 45-60 cm is fixed in the soil before sowing. Cover the field with a plastic sheet (100 gauge thickness) with the help of a support rod. Plastic sheets should be removed mainly in February when the temperature outside is suitable.
- Dibbling Method:
Farmers sow it with the help of a small instrument called a ‘dibbler. First, they press the frame into the fields and lift, and then they drop one or two seeds into each hole by hand.
Capsicum Cultivation – Irrigation Methods
- Add acid to the water tank to lower the water’s pH, then use the water for irrigation and spraying.
- Immediately after planting, starting the first shower requires irrigation; after a few days, using drip irrigation will help in the plant’s root development.
- Typically, one dripper is required per plant. Drip irrigation offers 2-4 ltr of water per square meter, depending on the season. In hot summers, you can use the foggers to maintain the humidity of the air.
- Observe the soil column for irrigation and check the moisture content of the soil. Next, determine the amount of irrigation required.
- In the summer season, apply water to the sides of the bed using the shower frequently to reduce evaporator damage. For this purpose, provision should make for a water outlet (1″ diameter pipe) inside the greenhouse.
- Always water the plant from noon onwards.
- The air humidity should not exceed 90-92% as it tends to spoil the fruit.
- You should use fresh water for irrigation in a crop. Do not store water for 4- 5 days.
Capsicum Cultivation – Fertilizer Requirement
- Farmers apply fertilizer three weeks after the vegetative stage N:P: K:1:1:1 (e.g., 19:19:19).
- Fertilize and yield often in small amounts for optimum results. However, always be careful to meet the requirements of the crop.
- Farmers must give Micronutrients (e.g., Combi II, Microscope B, Sequel, Rexolin and Mahabrexil @ 40 g per 1000 L of water) daily weekly as per symptoms.
- Apply organic manure with an EC of less than 2 ms/cm every three months to maintain appropriate C: N ratio.
- Check soil expanses every two to three months to determine specific plants.
Best Practices for Capsicum Cultivation
- Farmers should weed and hoe at proper intervals for a good yield of the crop.
- Adding soil 2-3 weeks after transplanting will help in removing weeds from the fields. The first weeding after 30 days of transplanting, and the second, after 60 days of transplanting.
- Avoid heavy use of nitrogenous fertilizers.
- Farmers grow the capsicum in nursery beds for cultivation. First, they prepare the seedbeds of 300 x 60 x 15 cm for growing seedlings. Next, farmers sow the seeds in nursery beds, and after sowing the nursery, they cover the beds with a thin layer of soil compost.
- Light irrigation is necessary after sowing the seeds in the bed for optimum germination of seeds. Then, they transplant it when the seedlings have attained 4-5 leaves. Farmers transplanting mainly in the evening in cloudy weather. For transplanting, mainly 50-60 old plants are used.
- To avoid sunburn, plant seedlings at close distances, grow varieties with abundant foliage and grow crops with high density.
- Preventing the drop of fruits and flowers, apply light and frequent irrigation at the flowering and fruiting stage.
- Avoid the blossom end rot, apply light irrigation regularly, and find soil with good water holding capacity.
All the processing of capsicum farming, tractors and tools are the most necessary in farming. We suggest the Ace tractor because this tractor is appreciable for all Indian farmers.
For more information regarding capsicum cultivation and any other cultivation, stay tuned with us.