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Concept of Indian Monsoon | Geology Tutorials

Indian monsoon in this module you will

understand the concept of Indian monsoon

explain the factors that determined the

typicality of Indian monsoon and also

explain the role of monsoon in Indian

economy monsoon Indian monsoon to the

points it is magical it is dramatic in

fact it really is dramatic let us see

what a monsoon is monsoon is a periodic

seasonal wind that comes from sea to

land in a particular season and

completely reverses back with the change

in the atmospheric conditions in the

next season it is a typical yet dominant

feature of the Indian climate the term

monsoon is derived from an Arabic word

which means season in olden days

the sailors found this wind convenient

to set in their sails on the direction

of the wind they used to save their fuel

and time by doing so let us discuss the

causes of this seasonal reversal of wind

from sea to land and land to sea the

main cause is the differential heating

and cooling of land and its surrounding

water bodies that is season oceans

during summer land is hotter and the

slow pressure develops over interior

parts of the large Indian landmass

simultaneously high-pressured condition

develops over the seas and oceans

surrounding India thus a steady flow of

moisture Laden wind moves towards India

and causes rainfall for almost three

months as the pressure system reverses

due to apparent shifting of the Sun from

the Tropic of Cancer to the equator the

wind also reverses back to the same

direction from where it comes there is

another interesting fact that the

apparent movement of the Sun from the

Tropic of Cancer in June to the Tropic

of Capricorn in December affects the

global climate the pressure bells and

the wind systems change globally the

maximum effect can be noticed on the

equatorial belt here the northeast and

southeast trade winds converge

does it is also called as the

Intertropical Convergence zone or itcz

so due to the apparent movement of the

Sun this ITC said

shifts five degrees north during summer

and 5 degrees south during winter the

ITCZ is pushed further north till the

Ganga basin due to the differential

heating and cooling of the Indian

landmass and its surrounding water

bodies during the monsoon season we call

it as a monsoon trough the intense low

pressure system formed over the Tibetan

Plateau attracts air from the intense

high-pressure system that develops over

Indian Ocean near Madagascar island off

Africa this causes a strong pull of

moisture-laden air mass from ocean to

the landmass of India while the shifting

of the ITCZ

the pressure system reverses causing the

reversal of wind around the same time

the movement of upper air circulation or

the jet streams also affects the summer

and winter monsoons of India the global

climatic events of changing pressure

system over oceans have tremendous

effect on the arrival duration amount

and retreat of monsoon in India the

equatorial belt of the tropical region

of the Pacific and Indian Oceans

faces the maximum effects usually the

situation is like when the southeastern

Pacific has low pressure and high

temperature the eastern Indian Ocean has

high pressure and low temperature but

the situation reverses roughly in 3 to 8

years this reversal of temperature and

pressure condition across the ocean is

called as Southern Oscillation due to

vast uninterrupted ocean in the southern

hemisphere the conditions are felt more

than in the northern hemisphere the

normal condition brings moderate to good

monsoon whereas the reverse condition

brings drought and femmine to the Asian

region El Nino and La Nina are the two

opposite ends of the Southern

Oscillation or ENSO cycle El Nino is the

warmed phase of Southern Oscillation and

La Nina is the cold phase of Southern

Oscillation these deviations from normal

surface temperatures can have

large-scale impacts not only on ocean

processes

but also on global weather and climate

this climatic event is also known as

ENSO L means El Nino and so means

Southern Oscillation during El Nino the

monsoon will be weaker and comes late in

India as summer is cooler and the

surrounding sea and ocean temperature

remain warmer than the usual the

Peruvian cold current is replaced by a

warm current therefore the pull of air

from the landmass would be weak the La

Nina is good for monsoon condition as

the temperature over the sea remains

cooler and pressure difference between

land and sea is very high so the pulling

of air mass from sea to land is very

intense El Nino and La Nina events occur

on average every 2 to 7 years the

arrival of the monsoon rain in India is

the most satisfying and joyous moment

for the people of India this is more

because India is an agricultural country

and the economic growth of each year

depends on the amount and duration of

monsoon rain delays and long breaks in

monsoon rain are dangerous for the basic

occupations such as farming fishing and

forestry this is because chances of

drought and femmine increase on the

other hand a long spell of heavy rain

may damage standing crops with the

increased threats of blood the secondary

sector of the economy like the agro

based industry you also depends on

monsoon as the supply of their raw

material is governed by a good stellar

terrain the market will remain steady

with a good monsoon year with stable

price of food products whereas a bad

monsoon season will cause inflation food

insecurity and public unrest monsoon is

a unifying bond of the nature and

lifestyle of India the rivers and ponds

rejuvenate with rainwater the soil and

underground water table gets support to

hold moisture and water and the parched

plant and animal kingdom's become lively

with the monsoon shower the green nature

of monsoon fed India has inspired poets

and artists to create rich poetry and

paintings that add to our rich cultural

heritage let's recap

Tsun is a periodic seasonal wind it

blows from sea to land in one season and

reverses back in the next season

the term monsoon is derived from an

Arabic word ma sim which means season

the main causes the differential heating

and cooling of land and its surrounding

water bodies that is seas and oceans the

reversal of temperature and pressure

condition across the ocean is called as

Southern Oscillation El Nino and La Nina

are the two opposite ends of the

Southern Oscillation El Nino is the warm

phase and La Nina is the cold phase

India is an agricultural country and the

economic growth of each year depends on

the amount and duration of monsoon rain

delays and long breaks and monsoon rain

increase the chance of drought and

Femina on the other hand a long spell of

heavy rain increases the threats of

flood monsoon is a unifying bond of the

nature and lifestyle of India