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Episode 24 : Prepositions v's adverbs

so this is episode 24 prepositions

versus efforts so way back in video 18

we learnt about adverbs and in the last

video we learned about prepositions and

the two word classes certainly have a

lot in common now one of the things they

have in common yeah is their semantic

similarities in that both adverbs and

prepositions can express information

about place movement and time however

there are some very distinct differences

between prepositions and adverbs as well

and I'm going to write those down now

prepositions if you may remember from

the last video is specifically

expressing a relationship between two or

more things and events so let's write

that

an effort on the other hand expresses

the manner in which one thing is done

okay now that it's written down I'll

just say that again read it through so

our semantic differences or the main

semantic difference here between the

preposition and the adverb is that

prepositions Express a relationship

between two or more things and events I

should say or events things or events

really if not n things and that would be

a bit clearer so I'll say that very

clearly again the preposition expresses

a relationship between two or more

things or events and the adverb

expresses the manner in which one thing

is done okay so this distinction can be

made evidence if we look at an example

here we have sentence one the boat

sailed by the harbor and sentence - the

boat sailed by now in the first sentence

by is a preposition to write P now

because it's showing the relationship

between the boat and the harbor so we've

got the boat and we've got the harbor so

there's two things and by showing the

relationship between them now in the

second sentence by is an epic because

it's describing the minute in which the

boat is sailing where's a boat sailing

sailing by now the above example also

supports how adverbs and prepositions

differ syntactically now we know that

unlike adverbs prepositions precede a

noun phrase to make a prepositional

phrase so here we have the harbour so

however being the noun duck being the

determiner and here's a noun phrase the

harbour and right before it we have our

preposition so by the harbour all

together creates a prepositional phrase

an adverb on the other hand does not

come before a noun phrase

so this is how we can tell syntactically

there are preposition over and adverb

now another way that we can be certain

that by in the second sentence is an

adverb and not a preposition is by using

the substitution test now the

substitution test is actually good for

all of the word classes it's when we

substitute another word for the same

word class into the position of this

uncertain were to see if it still makes

sense and if it does and that's the word

class it belongs to so let's see first

we'll have a look at by in the second

sentence and see whether it's a

preposition so I've chosen into as a

substitute so instead of by I'm going to

write entry and now it reads as the boat

sailed into well that sentence is

incomplete now if I choose a alternative

adverb that can't be also considered a

preposition such as slowly so now I can

instead of putting by I will put slowly

the boat sailed slowly will that make

sense okay so in this instance this bi

is definitely an adverb and in fact if I

wished to I could actually put into the

harbor at the end of by the boat sailed

by into the harbor and then we would

have by the adverb and then into as the

preposition to relate the boat to the

harbor so the boat sailed by into the

harbor let me write that down

and as I was explaining in this sentence

we have by which is an adverb and then

we have into which is the preposition

because into is coming here as part of

the prepositional phrase and by is

describing how the boat sailed or the

manner in which the boat sailed or where

the boat sailed just gives a little

extra information so distinguishing

between an adverb and a preposition can

be a little tricky but hopefully this

video has provided a few helpful tricks

to make it a little bit easier now our

next video I'm going to move on from

prepositions and into our final word

class which is interjections and that

will be it for all these word classes

we've finally reached the last one so

well done if you've stuck it through

here we are coming in to our ultimate

word class until then thanks for

watching the language code